Mandatory covid-19 vaccination in human rights and utilitarianism perspectives

Zaid Zaid, Wempy Setyabudi Hernowo, Nanik Prasetyoningsih

Abstract


Departing from the mandatory vaccination had been debated and received a lot of rejection which has caused intense emotions. In this study, the authors tried to evaluate the mandatory regulation of COVID-19 vaccination from a human rights and utilitarianism perspective. By conducting normative research method, this study reveals that indeed the obligation that tends to be coercive for COVID-19 vaccination seems to violate individual human rights which each individual has the right to decide for themselves whether they want to participate in the program or not without coercion. However, mandatory vaccination is still justified, from a human rights perspective, to protect other people's rights not to be infected with infectious diseases. This is also in line with a utilitarian perspective that departs from the argument that vaccines provide a myriad of benefits for many people in the midst of a pandemic, therefore to create benefits for the majority of society, the mandatory COVID-19 vaccination is something that is needed. Even if necessary, both sanctions and punishments can be justified in Mill's utilitarianism to achieving the greatest utility for the greatest number of society.

References


A. Haleem, M. Javaid, and R. Vaishya, “Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life,” Curr. Med. Res. Pract., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 78–79, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011.

T. Eryando, T. Sipahutar, and S. Rahardiantoro, “The Risk Distribution of COVID-19 in Indonesia: A Spatial Analysis,” Asia Pacific J. Public Heal., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 450–452, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1177/1010539520962940.

The Government Regulation Number 21 of 2020 on Large-Scale Social Restrictions in Accelerating the Handling of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Republic of Indonesia, 2020.

The Government Regulation in Lieu of Law No. 1 Year 2020 on State Financial Policy and Stability of Financial Systems for the Management of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) and/or Encounter the Threat to National Economy and/or Stability of Financial. The Republic of Indonesia, 2020.

K. Gedela, P. P. Januraga, H. Luis, F. S. Wignall, and I. Irwanto, “COVID-19 Lockdown in Indonesia: Greater Investment Will Be Needed to Mitigate the Impact on People Living With HIV,” Asia-Pacific J. Public Heal., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 461–462, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1177/1010539520962611.

Z. Zaid and K. Pratondo, “Public Perception On COVID-19 Vaccination Intention,” Int. J. Public Heal. Sci., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 906–913, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.11591/IJPHS.V10I4.20914.

M. A. S. P. Erawan, Z. Zaid, K. Pratondo, and A. Y. Lestari, “Predicting Covid-19 Vaccination Intention: The Role of Health Belief Model of Muslim Societies in Yogyakarta,” Al-Sihah Public Heal. Sci. J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 36–50, Jun. 2021, doi: 10.24252/AL-SIHAH.V13I1.20647.

A. F. Cohen et al., “COVID-19 vaccines: the importance of transparency and fact-based education,” Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 2107–2110, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1111/bcp.14581.

The Minister Of Health Regulation No. 10 Of 2021 On Implementation Of Vaccinations In The Control Of 2019 Corona Virus Disease Pandemic (Covid-19). The Republic of Indonesia, 2021.

S. Neumann-Böhme et al., “Once we have it, will we use it? A European survey on willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19,” Eur. J. Heal. Econ., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 977–982, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.1007/s10198-020-01208-6.

F. Camilleri, “Compulsory vaccinations for children: Balancing the competing human rights at stake,” Netherlands Q. Hum. Rights, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 245–267, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.1177/0924051919861797.

R. Pierik, “On religious and secular exemptions: A case study of childhood vaccination waivers,” Ethnicities, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 220–241, Apr. 2017, doi: 10.1177/1468796817692629.

“The imperative of vaccination: a public Europe-wide debate around mandatory vaccination,” Eur. J. Public Health, vol. 29, no. Supplement_4, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckz185.821.

E. Cave, “Voluntary vaccination: the pandemic effect,” Leg. Stud., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 279–304, Jun. 2017, doi: 10.1111/lest.12144.

A. Chadwick et al., “Online Social Endorsement and Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in the United Kingdom,” Soc. Media + Soc., vol. 7, no. 2, p. 205630512110088, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1177/20563051211008817.

C. Betsch and R. Böhm, “Detrimental effects of introducing partial compulsory vaccination: experimental evidence,” Eur. J. Public Health, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 378–381, Jun. 2016, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckv154.

“Australian COVID-19 Vaccination Policy,” 2020. https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/2020/11/australian-covid-19-vaccination-policy.docx (accessed Apr. 26, 2021).

H. Ellyatt, “France vaccine-skepticism is widespread, here’s why,” Jan. 2021. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/01/13/france-swhy-france-is-the-most-vaccine-skeptical-nation-on-earth.html (accessed Apr. 26, 2021).

“Joe Biden: Covid vaccination in US will not be mandatory - BBC News.” https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-55193939 (accessed Apr. 26, 2021).

L. Niada, “The human right to medicines in relation to patents in sub-Saharan Africa: Some critical remarks,” Int. J. Hum. Rights, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 700–727, Jun. 2011, doi: 10.1080/13642987.2011.571029.

D. Lyons, “Utilitarianism,” in Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015, pp. 1–4.

H. R. West, “Utilitarianism,” in International Encyclopedia of Ethics, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2013.

J. Brennan, “A libertarian case for mandatory vaccination,” J. Med. Ethics, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 37–43, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.1136/medethics-2016-103486.

C. T. Blunden, “Libertarianism and collective action: Is there a libertarian case for mandatory vaccination?,” J. Med. Ethics, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 71–74, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1136/medethics-2018-104752.

J. Bernstein, “The case against libertarian arguments for compulsory vaccination,” J. Med. Ethics, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 792–796, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1136/medethics-2016-103857.

J. L. Schwartz, “Evidence and Ethics in Mandatory Vaccination Policies,” Am. J. Bioeth., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 46–48, Sep. 2013, doi: 10.1080/15265161.2013.815023.

D. R. Reiss and A. L. Caplan, “Considerations in mandating a new Covid-19 vaccine in the USA for children and adults,” J. Law Biosci., vol. 7, no. 1, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1093/jlb/lsaa025.

A. L. Caplan, “The Battle Over Compulsory Vaccination in the United States,” Am. J. Public Health, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 424–425, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.2105/ajph.2018.304315.

Y. T. Yang and D. R. Reiss, “French mandatory vaccine policy,” Vaccine, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1323–1325, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.01.073.

W. Ricciardi, S. Boccia, and R. Siliquini, “Moving towards compulsory vaccination: The Italian experience,” Eur. J. Public Health, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 2–3, Feb. 2018, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx214.

V. Toffolutti, M. McKee, A. Melegaro, W. Ricciardi, and D. Stuckler, “Austerity, measles and mandatory vaccination: cross-regional analysis of vaccination in Italy 2000–14,” Eur. J. Public Health, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 123–127, Feb. 2019, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cky178.

O. M. Vaz et al., “Mandatory vaccination in Europe,” Pediatrics, vol. 145, no. 2, p. e20190620, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-0620.

M. C. Van Hout and J. S. G. Wells, “The right to health, public health and COVID-19: a discourse on the importance of the enforcement of humanitarian and human rights law in conflict settings for the future management of zoonotic pandemic diseases,” Public Health, vol. 192, pp. 3–7, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2021.01.001.

N. E. MacDonald, J. Comeau, E. Dubé, L. Bucci, and J. E. Graham, “A public health timeline to prepare for COVID-19 vaccines in Canada,” Can. J. Public Heal., vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 945–952, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.17269/s41997-020-00423-1.

The 1945 Constitution. The Republic of Indonesia, 1945.

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. United Nations.

The Law No. 11 Of 2005 On The Ratification Of The International Covenant On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights. The Republic of Indonesia, 2005.

L. Jones, “Mandatory vaccination,” Am. J. Nurs., vol. 110, no. 3, p. 13, Mar. 2010, doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000368934.37572.bf.

The Law No. 36 of 2009 On Health. The Republic Of Indonesia, 2009.

B. Toebes, “Mediating tensions between public health and individual rights,” Eur. J. Public Health, vol. 30, no. Supplement_5, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckaa165.044.

R. Bayer, “The continuing tensions between individual rights and public health. Talking point on public health versus civil liberties,” EMBO Rep., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1099–1103, Dec. 2007, doi: 10.1038/sj.embor.7401134.

M. Orzechowski, M. Schochow, and F. Steger, “Balancing public health and civil liberties in times of pandemic,” J. Public Health Policy, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 145–153, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1057/s41271-020-00261-y.

“ECHR rules obligatory vaccination may be necessary.” https://www.dw.com/en/echr-rules-obligatory-vaccination-may-be-necessary/a-57128443 (accessed Apr. 27, 2021).

W. Parmet, “AIDS and Quarantine: The Revival of an Archaic Doctrine,” Hofstra Law Rev., vol. 14, no. 1, Jan. 1985.

J. E. Marco-Franco, P. Pita-Barros, D. Vivas-Orts, S. González-de-Julián, and D. Vivas-Consuelo, “COVID-19, Fake News, and Vaccines: Should Regulation Be Implemented?,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 744, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.3390/ijerph18020744.

C. M. Roteli-Martins and J. C. Teixeira, “Compulsory Vaccination: The Limit between Public and Private,” Rev. Bras. Ginecol. e Obstet., vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 785–786, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1722214.

O. L. M. Ferraz, Health as a human right : the politics and judicialization of health in Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021.

C. M. C. Rodrigues and S. A. Plotkin, “Impact of Vaccines; Health, Economic and Social Perspectives,” Front. Microbiol., vol. 11, p. 1526, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.3389/FMICB.2020.01526.

M. M. Hughes et al., “Projected Population Benefit of Increased Effectiveness and Coverage of Influenza Vaccination on Influenza Burden in the United States,” Clin. Infect. Dis., vol. 70, no. 12, pp. 2496–2502, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz676.

E. J. Anderson, M. A. Daugherty, L. K. Pickering, W. A. Orenstein, and R. Yogev, “Protecting the Community Through Child Vaccination,” Clin. Infect. Dis., vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 464–471, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy142.

L. S. J. Roope et al., “How Should a Safe and Effective COVID-19 Vaccine be Allocated? Health Economists Need to be Ready to Take the Baton,” PharmacoEconomics - Open, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 557–561, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1007/s41669-020-00228-5.

S. Singh, S. Singha Roy, and K. S. Sahu, “Immunization during COVID-19: let the ninja dance with the dragon,” J. Heal. Res., vol. ahead-of-print, no. ahead-of-print, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1108/jhr-06-2020-0212.

“Benefits of Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine | CDC.” https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/vaccine-benefits.html (accessed Apr. 27, 2021).

M. Doherty, P. Buchy, B. Standaert, C. Giaquinto, and D. Prado-Cohrs, “Vaccine impact: Benefits for human health,” Vaccine, vol. 34, no. 52, pp. 6707–6714, Dec. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.10.025.

S. Kashte, A. Gulbake, S. F. El-Amin, and A. Gupta, “COVID-19 vaccines: rapid development, implications, challenges and future prospects,” Hum. Cell, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 711–733, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1007/s13577-021-00512-4.

S. R. Kraaijeveld, “Vaccinating for whom? distinguishing between self-protective, paternalistic, altruistic and indirect vaccination,” Public Health Ethics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 190–200, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1093/phe/phaa005.

K. MacKay, “Utility and justice in public health,” J. Public Health (Bangkok)., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. e413–e418, Sep. 2018, doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdx169.

J. Riley, “Mill’s extraordinary utilitarian moral theory,” Polit. Philos. Econ., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 67–116, Feb. 2010, doi: 10.1177/1470594X09351952.

R. Gur-Arie, E. Jamrozik, and P. Kingori, “No Jab, No Job? Ethical Issues in Mandatory COVID-19 Vaccination of Healthcare Personnel Commentary Handling editor Seye Abimbola,” BMJ Glob. Heal., vol. 6, p. 4877, 2021, doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004877.

R. A. R. Bowen, “Ethical and organizational considerations for mandatory COVID-19 vaccination of health care workers: A clinical laboratorian’s perspective,” Clin. Chim. Acta, vol. 510, pp. 421–422, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.08.003.

T. Tännsjö, “Utilitarianism or prioritarianism?,” Utilitas, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 240–250, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.1017/S0953820815000011.

J. Savulescu, I. Persson, and D. Wilkinson, “Utilitarianism and the pandemic,” Bioethics, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 620–632, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1111/bioe.12771.

A. Giubilini, T. Douglas, and J. Savulescu, “The moral obligation to be vaccinated: utilitarianism, contractualism, and collective easy rescue,” Med. Heal. Care Philos., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 547–560, Dec. 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11019-018-9829-y.

P. Fine, K. Eames, and D. L. Heymann, “‘Herd Immunity’: A Rough Guide,” Clin. Infect. Dis., vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 911–916, Apr. 2011, doi: 10.1093/cid/cir007.

J. H. Tibbetts, “Will a COVID Vaccine Be Accepted?,” Bioscience, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 11–17, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1093/biosci/biaa133.

The Minister of Health Decree No. HK.01.07 /MENKES /12758/2020 On Determination of Types of Vaccines for the Implementation of Covid-19 Vaccination. The Republic of Indonesia, 2020.

“WHO lists Moderna vaccine for emergency use - World | ReliefWeb,” 2021. https://reliefweb.int/report/world/who-lists-moderna-vaccine-emergency-use (accessed May 01, 2021).

L. Drew, “The case for mandatory vaccination,” Nature, vol. 575, no. 7784, pp. S58–S60, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-03642-w.

P. N. Turner, “Punishment and discretion in Mill’s utilitarianism,” Utilitas, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 165–178, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.1017/S0953820814000326.

B. Weiner, S. Graham, and C. Reyna, “An attributional examination of retributive versus utilitarian philosophies of punishment,” Soc. Justice Res., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 431–452, Dec. 1997, doi: 10.1007/BF02683293.

J. Savulescu, “Good reasons to vaccinate: Mandatory or payment for risk?,” J. Med. Ethics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 78–85, Feb. 2021, doi: 10.1136/medethics-2020-106821.

The Presidential Regulation No. 14 Of 2021 On Amendments To Presidential Regulation Number 99 Year 2020 Concerning Procurement Of Vaccines And Implementation Of Vaccinations In The Control Of Corona Virus Desease 2019 (Covid-19). The Republic Of Indonesia, 2021.




DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v11i3.21412

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

View IJPHS Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.