A Nationwide Survey of Psychological Distress Among Indonesian Residents during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Titik Respati, Siska Nia Irasanti, Dewi Sartika, Ieva Baniyah Akbar, Roy Rillera Marzo


The Corona Virus (COVID-19) disease has become a public health emergency. The speed at which COVID-19 become pandemic and spread all over the world is alarming. A critical aspect of this type of pandemic is on the mental health of the community. This survey aimed to describe psychological distress in Indonesia's general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data collection began on 1st April 2020 to 30th April 2020. An online survey using Google Form with snowball sampling method used in this study. A modified version of the Covid-19 peri-traumatic distress index (CPDI) with 24 items used. The survey questionnaire included socio-economic and demographic variables. The study's total responses were 1,287, with 33 excluded from the analysis because of incomplete responses or not meeting inclusion criteria. Results showed that 63,5% of respondents reported having normal or no distress, 34 % were having mild to moderate levels of distress, and 2.8 % having severe distress. Age is the only variable that correlates with the level of distress. Healthcare workers and the general population showed no significant differences in the level of distress. During the early break of the COVID-19 pandemic, around 40% of respondents rated their psychological state having moderate to severe distress. These findings can be used to develop better psychological intervention measures and prevention of mental health during the pandemic.



Worldodometers [Internet]. Worldodometer. Available from: https://www.worldometers.info-/coronavirus/

Morgeson FP, Aguinis H, Waldman, David A, Sengiel, Donald S. Predictors of non-adherence to public health instructions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pers Psychol. 2013;(1):1–29.

WHO. National Implementation Measures for the International Health Regulations 2005 ( IHR ) COVID-19 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern ( PHEIC ) under the IHR protect against , control an. 2020;2005(May):2019–20.

Alan F, Vivien S, Sven S. The coronavirus effect on global economic sentiment [Internet]. McKinsey. 2020. p. 6. Available from: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/the-coronavirus-effect-on-global-economic-sentiment

Shahid Z, Kalayanamitra R, McClafferty B, Kepko D, Ramgobin D, Patel R, et al. COVID-19 and Older Adults: What We Know. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2020;68(5):926–9.

Pierce M, Hope H, Ford T, Hatch S, Hotopf M, John A, et al. Mental health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal probability sample survey of the UK population. The Lancet Psychiatry [Internet]. 2020;0366(20):1–10. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30308-4

Musa HH, Musa TH, Musa IH, Oderinde O. Letter to Editor COVID-19 outbreak and medical waste : Challenge in hand. Int J Public Heal Sci. 2020;9(3):153–4.

Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, Solo K, Yaacoub S, Schünemann HJ. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet [Internet]. 2020;395(January):19–21. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263814/pdf/main.pdf

Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendations. Gen Psychiatry. 2020;33(2):1–4.

Mazza C, Ricci E, Biondi S, Colasanti M, Ferracuti S, Napoli C, et al. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among italian people during the covid-19 pandemic: Immediate psychological responses and associated factors. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9):1–14.

WHO. Looking after our mental health [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2020. p. 1. Available from: https://www.who.int/campaigns/connecting-the-worldtocombatcoronavirus/healthyathome/-healthyathomementalhealth?gclid=CjwKCAjwlZf3BRABEiwA8Q0qq8E1OcfnWrqeWyCyAKq5pQpQ8ulzUt5mv4zXehHYUbw_SB9wLdvGHBoCexIQAvD_BwE

WHO. Mental Health and Psychosocial Considerations During COVID-19 Outbreak. World Health Organization. 2020.

Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Vol. 17, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020.

Faidah NC, Respati T, Fitriyana S. Student Perception of State Senior High School in Bandung through and Individual that owned Mental Health Disorder. Pros Pendidik Dr [Internet]. 2017 Aug 10 [cited 2018 May 26];0(0):215–21. Available from: http://karyailmiah.unisba.ac.id/index.php/-dokter/article/view/7886/pdf

Rajkumar RP. COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;52(March).

Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw open. 2020;3(3):e203976.

Rosen S. As COVID-19 crisis continues, other infectious diseases threaten. LabPulse.com. 2020.

Gallè F, Sabella EA, Da Molin G, De Giglio O, Caggiano G, Di Onofrio V, et al. Understanding knowledge and behaviors related to covid−19 epidemic in italian undergraduate students: The epico study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(10):1–11.

Kemenkes RI. Guidelins for Prevention and Controled of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Vol. 4. 2020. 1–214 p.

Kemenkes RI. Guidelines for community empowerment in disaster management and health crises during the Covid-19 period. 2020

Kemenkes RI. Decree of the minister of health of the Republic of Indonesia number hk.01.07 / menkes / 328/2020 concerning prevention and control guidelines for COVID-19. Vol. 1. 2020.

Kemenkes RI. Guidelines for Healthcare and Social Welfare during COVID19.-pdf. 2020. 1–64 p.

Atalan A. Is the lockdown important to prevent the COVID-9 pandemic? Effects on psychology, environment and economy-perspective. Ann Med Surg [Internet]. 2020;56(June):38–42. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2020.06.010

Sailesh S, Goothy K, Goothy S, Chakraborty H. COVID-19 lockdown impact on the mental health of students : need to start a mental health cell. MOJ Anat Physiol. 2020;7(2):51–2.

Bhat BA, Khan S, Manzoor S, Niyaz A, Tak HJ, Anees S-U-M, et al. A Study on Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Psychological Health, Economy and Social Life of People in Kashmir. Int J Sci Healthc Res [Internet]. 2020;5(2):37. Available from: www.ijshr.com

Király O, Potenza MN, Stein DJ, King DL, Hodgins DC, Saunders JB, et al. Preventing problematic internet use during the COVID-19 pandemic: Consensus guidance. Compr Psychiatry. 2020;100:1–4.

Ayu IM, Titik R, Yuli S. Preschoolers’ mental health status based on their mobile gadget usage. J Phys Conf Ser. 2020;1469(1).

Figueiredo AM De, Codina AD, Marculino D figueirredo, M S, A Leon C. Impact of lockdown on COVID-19 incidence and mortality in China: an interrupted time series study. Bull World Heal Organ [Internet]. 2020;(April):1–18. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.20.256701

Yamamoto T, Uchiumi C, Suzuki N, Yoshimoto J, Murillo-Rodriguez E. The psychological impact of “mild lockdown” in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide survey under a declared state of emergency. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020;2019(June):2020.07.17.20156125. Available from: http://medrxiv.org/content/early/2020/07/17/2020.07.17.20156125.abstract

Reavley N, Jorm A. National survey of mental health literacy and stigma. Dep Heal Ageing, Canberra [Internet]. 2011;(December):2011. Available from: http://pmhg.unimelb.edu.au/__data/-assets/pdf_file/0007/636496/National_Mental_Health_Literacy_Survey_Monograph.pdf

Iswara MA. More mental health workers needed to address effects of COVID-19. The Jakarta Post [Internet]. 2020; Available from: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/06/09/more-mental-health-workers-needed-to-address-effects-of-covid-19.html

Kelland K. UN warns of global mental health crisis due to COVID-19 pandemic [Internet]. The Jakarta Post. 2020. p. 1. Available from: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/05/14/un-warns-of-global-mental-health-crisis-due-to-covid-19-pandemic.html

Kazmi SSH, Hasan K, Talib S, Saxena S. COVID-19 and Lockdwon: A Study on the Impact on Mental Health. SSRN Electron J. 2020;(April).

DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v10i1.20609
Total views : 58 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

View IJPHS Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.