Editorial Policies

Focus and Scope

International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS) is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes material on all aspects of public health science. This IJPHS provides the ideal platform for the discussion of more sophisticated public health research and practice for authors and readers world wide. The priorities are originality and excellence. The journal welcomes high-impact articles on emerging public health science that covers (but not limited) to epidemiology, biostatistics, nutrition, family health, infectious diseases, health services research, gerontology, child health, adolescent health, behavioral medicine, rural health, chronic diseases, health promotion, evaluation and intervention, public health policy and management, health economics, occupational health and environmental health.

 

Section Policies

Epidemiology

Risk factors, communicable disease, non communicable disease, etiology, determinant factors of health and disease, population, sample, evidence based, statistical analysis, research method, transmission, outbreak investigation, surveillance, monitoring, screening, clinical trial, exposure, specific protection, treatment, prevention, rehabilitation, trend, distribution, frequency, triangle of epidemiology, host, agent, environment, population at risk, study design, data collection, observational study, cross sectional, case control, cohort, experimental study, epidemic, endemic, pandemic, pathogenesis, mortality, morbidity, odds ratio (OR), bias, relative risk (RR), reliability, validity, incidence, prevalence, probability, random, confounding, survival analysis, regression, bivariate analysis, multivariate analysis.

Editors
  • Mane Abhay Babruwahan
  • Jamuna Prakash
  • Jay Silverman
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Health_Promotion

Prevention, health education, community empowerment, non government organization (NGO), social marketing, preventive health care, breastfeeding promotion, smoking cessation, health literacy, health equity, health care facilities, qualitative study, volunteer, counsellor, behaviour, life style modification, health marketing, behavioural theories, behavioural models, technology, social media, advertising, social support, advocating, evaluation, intervention, community health, multidisciplinary public health, knowledge, attitude, practice, five level of prevention, health planning, communication, long life, well being, self efficacy, intention, perception, culture, belief, behaviour change, strategy.

Editors
  • Miguel A. Mayer MD, PhD, MPH, MSc, Dipl
  • Henry Imhonde
  • Jon Perez
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Maternal_and_Reproductive_Health

Mother, baby, infant, children, conception, fetus, contraception, fertility, breastfeeding, formula feeding, immunization, condom, IUD, vasectomy, tubectomy, married, unmarried, single parent, abuse, violence, girlfriend, boyfriend, husband, wife, widow, birth, mortality, early breastfeeding initiation, colostrum, caesarean, midwife, medicine, vitamin, antenatal care, postpartum, menopause, fertile, infertile, menstruation, unsafe abortion, pregnancy, eclampsia, underweight children, premature, family planning, birth control, childbirth, immigration, demographic transition, lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender (LGBT), birth injury, sex education, neonatal, teenager, hypertensive disorder, breast cancer, puberty, HIV/AIDS, hormone, sexually transmitted disease, women equality, reproductive justice, gender, family, herpes, gonorrhoea, human papilloma virus (HPV), syphilis

Editors
  • Veronique Gucht
  • Ellina Lytvyak
  • Jennifer Spencer
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Occupational_Health_and_Safety

Hazard, workplace, industry, construction, fire, disaster, personal protective equipment (PPE), risk, management, zero accident, productivity, early warning, maintenance, accident, standard operational procedure (SOP), employer, international labour organization (ILO), safety, toxic chemical, first aid, human error, ergonomic, insurance, biohazard, dust, gas, occupational exposure limit, pain, maternity leave, manufacturing, injury, occupational stress, workplace bullying, overwork, quality of work, nutrition in workplace, the occupational health and safety management system standard (OHSAS) 18001, the international organization for standardization, occupational illness, musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), work productivity, awareness, occupational medicine.

Editors
  • Henry Imhonde
  • Rob Van Dam
  • A Veresiu
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Hospital_Management

Hospital, health administration, planning, hospital administrators, medical record, accountability, professionalism, financial, collaboration, leadership, hospital system information management, hospital association, baby friendly hospital, doctor, nurse, accreditation, public health care, patient, length of stay, intensive care unit (ICU), intensive children care unit (ICCU), nosocomial infection, hospital occupational safety and health, pharmacy, home care, drug, hospitalization, logistic management, linen, emergency room, laundry unit, infectious wise management, laboratory, hospital environment, treatment centres, hospital equipment, malpractice, human resources, budgeting, marketing, operation, ethical committee hospital, health professional, health care IT, infection, medical devices, sterilization, polyclinic.

Editors
  • Veronique Gucht
  • Muhiuddin Haider
  • Jon Perez
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Public_Health_Nutrition

Nutrient, dietary, food, junk food, healthy food, raw food, vegetable, fruit, malnutrition, sugar, meat, fish, cake, rice, vitamin, milk, stunting, prenatal nutrition, anaemia, growth, absorption, food intake, metabolism, diet, foodborne illness, obesity, overweight, metabolism, cretinism, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, water, fat, amino acid, essential fating, metabolic syndrome, nutrient, mineral, milk, calcium, iron, iodine, zinc , vegetarian, food safety, food security, food standard, starvation, insulin, cholesterol.

Editors
  • Yuming Guo
  • Jamuna Prakash
  • Fazal Shirazi
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Environmental_Health

Toxicology, pollution, air, water, sanitation, diarrhoea, municipal, urban, rural, waste management, personal hygiene, global warming, poison, flood, monitoring water, water quality, forest fires, pesticide, insecticide, fertilizer, vector, mosquito, rat, water sampling, flies, Aedes aegypti, malaria, pest control, breeding place, landslide, tuberculosis (TB), restaurant, housing, ventilation, lighting, moisture proofing, public place, floor, net, reservoir, river, pond, sea.

Editors
  • Xiaoli Gao
  • Tassanee Rawiworrakul
  • Asna Urooj
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Health_Policy

Government, regulation, law, justice, citizen, policy brief, health insurance, recommendation, ministry of health, health system, stakeholder, national goal, quality of life, leader, manager, administrator, document, data, capacity, information, strengthen, people, constitution, community, budget, program, evaluation, monitoring, strength-weakness-opportunity-threat (SWOT), constrain, challenges, national health coverage, innovative, insurance, academician, establishment, sustainable, vulnerable population.

Editors
  • Miguel A. Mayer MD, PhD, MPH, MSc, Dipl
  • Mane Abhay Babruwahan
  • Yuming Guo
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Other_Topics_in_Public_Health_Science

Literature review, special report, editorial, letter to editor.

Editors
  • Veronique Gucht
  • Henry Imhonde
  • Jennifer Spencer
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed
 

Peer Review Process

Submitted papers are evaluated by anonymous referees for contribution, originality, relevance, and presentation. The Editor shall inform you of the results of the review as soon as possible, hopefully in 30 to 60 days.

 

Open Access Policy

This journal adhere to the best practice and high publishing standards and comply with the following conditions:

  1. Provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge;
  2. Allows the author to hold the copyright and to retain publishing right without restrictions;
  3. Deposits content with a long term digital preservation or archiving program;
  4. Uses DOIs as permanent identifiers;
  5. Embeds machine-readable CC licensing information in articles;
  6. Allows generous reuse and mixing of content, in accordance with CC BY-NC license;
  7. Can Provide Provide article level metadata for any indexers and aggregators
  8. Has a deposit policy registered wíth a deposit policy registry, e.g. Sherpa/Romeo.

 

Archiving

This journal utilizes the LOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of the journal for purposes of preservation and restoration. More...

 

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) is a non-profit international scientific association of distinguished scholars engaged in engineering and science devoted to promoting researches and technologies in engineering and science field through digital technology. IAES Journals are peer-reviewed international journals. This statement clarifies ethical behaviour of all parties involved in the act of publishing an article in our journals, including the authors, the editors, the peer-reviewer­­­­­s and the publisher (Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science). This statement is based on COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

Ethical Guideline for Journal Publication

The publication of an article in a peer-reviewed International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS) is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of the work of the authors and the institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in the act of publishing: the authors, the journal editors, the peer reviewers, the publisher and the society.

Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) as publisher of IAES Journals takes its duties of guardianship over all stages of publishing extremely seriously and we recognize our ethical and other responsibilities. We are committed to ensuring that advertising, reprint or other commercial revenue
has no impact or influence on editorial decisions. In addition, the IAES and Editorial Board will assist in communications with other journals and/or publishers where this is useful and necessary.

Publication decisions

The editors of the IAES journals are responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. The editors may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editors may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.

Fair play

An editor at any time evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.

Confidentiality

The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author.

Duties of Reviewers

Contribution to Editorial Decisions

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.

Promptness

Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

Confidentiality

Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

Duties of Authors

Reporting standards

Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.

Data Access and Retention

Authors are asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data (consistent with the ALPSP-STM Statement on Data and Databases), if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.

Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication

An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship of the Paper

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects

If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

Fundamental errors in published works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

 

 

Conflict-of-Interest Statement

Conflicts of Interest

At the point of submission, the International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)'s policy requires that each author reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated - including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition. When considering whether you should declare a conflicting interest or connection please consider the conflict of interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it?

As an integral part of the online submission process, Corresponding authors are required to confirm whether they or their co-authors have any conflicts of interest to declare, and to provide details of these. If the Corresponding author is unable to confirm this information on behalf of all co-authors, the authors in question will then be required to submit a completed Conflict of Interest form to the Editorial Office. It is the Corresponding author’s responsibility to ensure that all authors adhere to this policy.

If the manuscript is published, Conflict of Interest information will be communicated in a statement in the published.

Conflict of Interest in Industry Sponsored Research

Authors whose manuscripts are submitted for publication must declare all relevant sources of funding in support of the preparation of a manuscript. The International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS) requires full disclosure of financial support as to whether it is from the tobacco industry, the pharmaceutical or any other industry, government agencies, or any other source. This information should be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript.
Authors are required to specify sources of funding for the study and to indicate whether or not the text was reviewed by the sponsor prior to submission, i.e., whether the study was written with full investigator access to all relevant data and whether the sponsor exerted editorial influence over the written text. This information should be included in the cover letter.
In addition to disclosure of direct financial support to the authors or their laboratory and prior sponsor-review of the paper, submitting authors are asked to disclose all relevant consultancies within the 12 months prior to submission, since the views expressed in the contribution could be influenced by the opinions they have expressed privately as consultants. This information should be included in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript.

In the event that a previously undisclosed potential competing interest for an author of a published paper comes to the attention of the editors and is subsequently confirmed with the authors, the undeclared interest will be published as an erratum in a future issue.

Conflict of Interest Policy: Reviewers and Editors

Reviewers must disclose to editors any conflicts of interest that could bias their opinions of the manuscript, and they should disqualify themselves from reviewing specific manuscripts if they believe it to be appropriate. As in the case of authors, silence on the part of reviewers concerning potential conflicts may mean either that such conflicts exist that they have failed to disclose, or that conflicts do not exist. Reviewers must therefore also be asked to state explicitly whether conflicts do or do not exist. Reviewers must not use knowledge of the work, before its publication, to further their own interests.

Conflict of interest for a given manuscript exists when a participant in the peer review and publication process—author, reviewer, and editor—has ties to activities that could inappropriately influence his or her judgment, regardless of whether judgment is, in fact, affected. Financial relationships with industry (for example, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, expert testimony), either directly or through immediate family, are usually considered the most important conflicts of interest. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion. External peer reviewers should disclose to editors any conflicts of interest that could bias their opinions of the manuscript and they should disqualify themselves from reviewing specific manuscripts if they believe it appropriate. The editors must be made aware of reviewers' conflict of interest to interpret the reviews and judge for themselves whether the reviewer should be disqualified” (From the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Annals of Internal Medicine 118, (8) 646-647).
judge for themselves whether the reviewer should be disqualified.” (From the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Annals of Internal Medicine 118, (8) 646-647).

Specific Policies

Submission by an editor. A paper submitted by an editor will be handled by one of the other editors who does not have a conflict with the review and who is not at the same institution as the submitting editor. The other editor will select referees and make all decisions on the paper.
Submission by author at same institution as one of the editors. A paper submitted by an author for which there is a potential conflict with who is at the same institution as one of the editors will be handled by one of the other editors. The other editor will select referees and make all decisions on the paper.
Submission by family member of editor or by author whose relationship with editor might create the perception of bias. A paper submitted by a family member of one of the editors, or by an author whose relationship with one of the editors might create the perception of bias (e.g. in terms of close friendship or conflict/rivalry), will be handled by another editor. The other editor will select referees and make all decisions on the paper. If in doubt, the editors will consult with the Journal editor.

Potential conflict of interest for reviewers. The invitation letter to reviewers will include the following paragraph: ‘If you know or think you know the identity of the author, and if you feel there is any potential conflict of interest in your refereeing this paper because of your relationship with the author (e.g. in terms of close friendship or conflict/rivalry) or for any other reason, please declare it. By accepting this invitation, it is assumed there is no potential conflict of interest.’ Standard policy will be not to use a referee if a conflict of interest has been declared, but the editors may use their discretion after consulting with one another.

 

Informed Consent, Privacy and Confidentiality Statement

This document is adapted from the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted tol Journals: Ethical Considerations in the Conduct and Reporting of Research: Privacy and Confidentiality, and Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research as published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Compliance with the entire Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts as published by the ICMJE is mandatory for all manuscripts submitted for consideration to the Journal of Surgical Radiology. Please review the information below carefully.

Patients and Study Participants: Patients have a right to privacy that should not be violated without informed consent. Identifying information, including names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that an identifiable patient be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication. Patient consent should be written and archived with the journal, the authors, or both, as dictated by local regulations or laws. The Journal of Surgical Radiology requires that all authors obtain written patient consent and that this be archived by the author and available for inspection for a period of at least three years. A written statement should be included in the manuscript that attests that the authors have obtained and archived written patient consent. Nonessential identifying details should be omitted. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance, and editors should so note, that such alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
Manuscripts that include human subjects must include a statement that written informed consent was obtained. If materials or records derived from humans are included, the statement that approval from an Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Ethics Committee was obtained prior to initiation of the study, if it is required by the institution. When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.
The use of laboratory animals must follow the standards established by the NIH Office of Animal Care and Use (OACU ARAC guidelines) and Institute for Laboratory Animal Research as published in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996).
Authors and Reviewers: Manuscripts will be reviewed with due respect for authors’ and reviewers' confidentiality. Our editors have been instructed to not disclose information about manuscripts (including their receipt, content, status in the reviewing process, criticism by reviewers, or ultimate fate) to anyone other than the authors and reviewers. Manuscripts sent for review are privileged communications. Therefore, reviewers and members of the editorial staff must respect the authors’ rights by not publicly discussing the authors’ work or appropriating their ideas before the manuscript is published. Reviewers may not make copies of the manuscript for their files and will not share it with others, except with the editor’s permission. Reviewers should return or destroy copies of manuscripts after submitting reviews.

 

Checklist for preparing your paper for publication

  1. Is your manuscript written in IAES format?  At this stage, it is essential that you  follow every detail of IAES format. Please try to follow the format as closely as possible.
  2. is your title adequate and is your abstract correctly written? The title of paper is max 10 words, without Acronym or abbreviation. The Abstract (MAX 200 WORDS) should be informative and completely self-explanatory (no citation in abstract), provide a clear statement of the problem, the proposed approach or solution, and point out major findings and conclusions.
  3. Authors are suggested to present their articles in the sections structure: Introduction - The Proposed Method/Algorithm/Procedure specifically designed (optional) - Research Method - Results and Discussion – Conclusion. Authors may present complex proofs of theorems or non-obvious proofs of correctness of algorithms after introduction section (obvious theorems & straightforward proofs of existing theorems are NOT needed).
  4. Introduction section: explain the context of the study and state the precise objective. An Introduction should contain the following three parts:
    - Background: Authors have to make clear what the context is. Ideally, authors should give an idea of the state-of-the art of the field the report is about.
    - The Problem: If there was no problem, there would be no reason for writing a manuscript, and definitely no reason for reading it. So, please tell readers why they should proceed reading. Experience shows that for this part a few lines are often sufficient.
    - The Proposed Solution: Now and only now! - authors may outline the contribution of the manuscript. Here authors have to make sure readers point out what are the novel aspects of authors work.
    Authors should place the paper in proper context by citing relevant papers. At least, 5 references (recently journal articles) are used in this section.
  5. Method section: the presentation of the experimental methods should be clear and complete in every detail facilitating reproducibility by other scientists.
  6. Results and discussion section: The presentation of results should be simple and straightforward in style. This section report the most important findings, including results of statistical analyses as apropriate and comparisons to other research results. Results given in figures should not be repeated in tables. This is where the author(s) should explain in words what he/she/they discovered in the research. It should be clearly laid out and in a logical sequence. This section should be supported suitable references.
  7. Conclusion section: Summarize sentences the primary outcomes of the study in a paragraph. Are the claims in this section supported by the results, do they seem reasonable? Have the authors indicated how the results relate to expectations and to earlier research? Does the article support or contradict previous theories? Does the conclusion explain how the research has moved the body of scientific knowledge forward?
  8. Language. If an article is poorly written due to grammatical errors, while it may make it more difficult to understand the science.
  9. Please be sure that the manuscript is up to date. It is expected that 10 to 20%  of references are to recent papers. 
  10. Is the manuscript clearly written?  Is the article exciting? Does the content flow well from one section to another? Please try to keep your manuscript on the proper level.  It should be easy to understand by well qualified professionals, but at the same time please avoid describing well known facts (use proper references instead). Often manuscripts receive negative reviews because reviewers are not able to understand the manuscript and this is authors' (not reviewers') fault.  Notice, that if reviewers have difficulties, then other readers will face the same problem and there is no reason to publish the manuscript.
  11. Do you have enough references?  We will usually expect a minimum of 30 to 35 references primarily to journal papers, depending on the length of the paper. Citations of textbooks should be used very rarely and citations to web pages should be avoided. All cited papers should be referenced within the text of the manuscript.
  12. Figures and Tables. Relation of Tables or Figures and Text: Because tables and figures supplement the text, all tables and figures should be referenced in the text. Authors also must explain what the reader should look for when using the table or figure. Focus only on the important point the reader should draw from them, and leave the details for the reader to examine on her own.

    Figures:
    a.    All figures appearing in article must be numbered in the order that they appear in the text.
    b.    Each figure must have a caption fully explaining the content
    c.    Figure captions are presented as a paragraph starting with the figure number i.e. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.
    d.    Figure captions appear below the figure
    e.    Each figure must be fully cited if taken from another article
    f.    all figures must be referred to in the body of the article

    Tables:
    a.    Material that is tabular in nature must appear in a numbered captioned table.
    b.    All tables appearing in article must be numbered in the order that they appear in the text.
    c.    Each table must have a caption fully explaining the content with the table number  i.e. Table 1, Table 2, etc.
    d.    Each column must have a clear and concise heading
    e.    Tables are to be presented with single horizontal line under: the table caption, the column headings and at the end of the table.
    f.    All tables must be referred to in the body of the article
    g.    Each table must be fully cited if taken from another article
  13. Each citation should be written in the order of appearance in the text. Citations and references must sequential. First citation in text is [1] and continued by [2], [3], [4], ... 
  14. Please be aware that for the final submission of regular paper you will be asked to tailor your paper so the last page is not half empty.