Benford’s law analysis to evaluate the quality data of COVID-19 epidemiological surveillance in Indonesia

Evi Susanti Sinaga, Novia Indriani Sudharma


Countries worldwide, including Indonesia, grappled with the unprecedented challenges brought about by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Surveillance data vividly illustrates the profound effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Both daily cases and deaths were raised, revealing the rapid transmission of the virus within communities. A quantitative study using a statistical approach was accomplished with secondary data to evaluate the quality of COVID-19 epidemiological surveillance data in Indonesia during the period between March 2020 to January 2021. The data was sourced from the World Health Organization (WHO) website using data reports on COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths. A rapid tool called the first digit law or the fulfillment of Benford’s law was used to suggest good data quality for epidemiological surveillance. Data analysis used the Chi-squared test and the log-likelihood ratio test. Also, it displayed the difference in mean absolute deviation (MAD) to identify the proximity of the data and Benford’s law distribution. The results showed that both confirmed, and death case distributions were statistically non-conformity with Benford’s law distribution. In terms of quality data regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, the epidemiological surveillance system falls short of Benford’s law assumption. Benford's law has been acknowledged as an initial analysis that can expeditiously assess the performance of a surveillance system. The next phase of this study would be to conduct a complete evaluation suitably, especially in post-pandemic COVID-19.

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International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

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