Depression, Anxiety, Coping Strategies and Quality of Life of the Elderly During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Iswatun Iswatun, Ah. Yusuf, Joko Susanto, Makhfudli Makhfudli, Abd. Nasir, Amellia Mardhika


Background and aims. Covid-19 is currently a global health problem, with the spread and transmission to the population almost all over the world. This has a psychological impact on the elderly which will affect mental health and quality of life. This study aims to identify the relationship of depression, anxiety, coping strategies with the quality of life of the elderly during the covid-19 pandemic in Lamongan. Method and materials. This study uses a cross sectional design, the population is all the elderly in the Lamongan area. The sampling technique used cluster sampling technique, with a total sample of 232 respondents. The independent variables are depression, anxiety and coping strategies, while the dependent variable is the quality of life of the elderly. Instruments for depression used the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), anxiety using the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and quality of life using the WHOQOOL-BRIEF questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Multiple linear regression test.

Result. The results showed that there was a relationship between depression and quality of life (ρ=0.001), there was a relationship between anxiety and quality of life (ρ=0.000) and there was also a relationship between coping strategies and quality of life (ρ=0.027). Conclusion. The study provides important information about the psychological impact of developing appropriate psychological interventions to improve mental health and quality of life, especially for at-risk groups, especially the elderly.


WHO, “Coronavirus (COVID-19) events as they happen. Rolling updates on coronavirus disease (COVID-19),” 2020. (accessed Dec. 31, 2021).

T. Kobayashi et al., “Communicating the Risk of Death from Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19),” J. Clin. Med., vol. 9, no. 2, p. 580, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.3390/jcm9020580.

J. Kirana, K. P. Rajagukguk, and E. L. S. Lubis, “Analisis Dampak Covid-19 Pada Masyarakat Sumatera Utara,” J. Ilm. Mhs., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 64–69, 2020.

W. Cullen, G. Gulati, and B. D. Kelly, “Mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic,” QJM An Int. J. Med., vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 311–312, May 2020, doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcaa110.

Y. Ying, L. Ruan, F. Kong, B. Zhu, Y. Ji, and Z. Lou, “Correction to: Mental health status among family members of health care workers in Ningbo, China, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 56, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.1186/s12888-021-03048-x.

Kemenkes RI, “Pedoman Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).” Kementerian Kesehatan RI, Jakarta, 2020.

L. Kang et al., “Impact on mental health and perceptions of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak: A cross-sectional study,” Brain. Behav. Immun., vol. 87, pp. 11–17, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.028.

T. Li et al., “Clinical characteristics of 312 hospitalized older patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China,” Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr., vol. 91, p. 104185, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2020.104185.

H. Qiu, J. Wu, L. Hong, Y. Luo, Q. Song, and D. Chen, “Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study,” Lancet Infect. Dis., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 689–696, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30198-5.

A. Di Crosta et al., “Psychological factors and consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic,” PLoS One, vol. 16, no. 8, p. e0256095, Aug. 2021, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0256095.

J. Torales, M. O’Higgins, J. M. Castaldelli-Maia, and A. Ventriglio, “The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health,” Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 317–320, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.1177/0020764020915212.

Y. Zhang and Z. F. Ma, “Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health and Quality of Life among Local Residents in Liaoning Province, China: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 17, no. 7, p. 2381, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.3390/ijerph17072381.

I. Levkovich, S. Shinan-Altman, N. Essar Schvartz, and M. Alperin, “Depression and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Elderly Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Israel: A Cross-sectional Study,” J. Prim. Care Community Health, vol. 12, p. 215013272199544, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1177/2150132721995448.

D. Morgan and V. Burholt, “Transitions in loneliness in later life: the role of social comparisons and coping strategies,” Ageing Soc., pp. 1–22, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1017/S0144686X20001634.

Y. Khaje-Bishak, L. Payahoo, B. Pourghasem, and M. Asghari Jafarabadi, “Assessing the quality of life in elderly people and related factors in tabriz, iran.,” J. caring Sci., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 257–63, Dec. 2014, doi: 10.5681/jcs.2014.028.

M. M. León-Navarrete et al., “Coping Strategies and Quality of Life in Elderly Population,” Open J. Soc. Sci., vol. 05, no. 10, pp. 207–216, 2017, doi: 10.4236/jss.2017.510017.

L. Zhao, X. Zhang, and G. Ran, “Positive coping style as a mediator between older adults’ self-esteem and loneliness,” Soc. Behav. Personal. an Int. J., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1619–1628, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.2224/sbp.6486.

M. Rodríguez-Pérez, A. Abreu-Sánchez, M. J. Rojas-Ocaña, and R. Del-Pino-Casado, “Coping strategies and quality of life in caregivers of dependent elderly relatives,” Health Qual. Life Outcomes, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 71, Jan. 2017, doi: 10.1186/s12955-017-0634-8.

M. dos S. Ribeiro, M. da S. Borges, T. C. C. F. de Araújo, and M. C. dos S. Souza, “Coping strategies used by the elderly regarding aging and death: an integrative review,” Rev. Bras. Geriatr. e Gerontol., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 869–877, Dec. 2017, doi: 10.1590/1981-22562017020.170083.

Y. Al-Shannaq, A. A. Mohammad, and M. Aldalaykeh, “Depression, coping skills, and quality of life among Jordanian adults during the initial outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic: cross sectional study,” Heliyon, vol. 7, no. 4, p. e06873, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06873.

A. W. Utami, R. Gusyaliza, and T. Ashal, “Hubungan Kemungkinan Depresi dengan Kualitas Hidup pada Lanjut Usia di Kelurahan Surau Gadang Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Nanggalo Padang,” J. Kesehat. Andalas, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 417, Dec. 2018, doi: 10.25077/jka.v7i3.896.

R. Amelia, A. S. Wahyuni, and J. Harahap, “Hubungan Status Depresi Dengan Kualitas Hidup Lansia Di Kota Medan,” in Talenta Conference Series: Tropical Medicine (TM), 2018, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 342–347.

Y. Song et al., “COVID-19 treatment: close to a cure? A rapid review of pharmacotherapies for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2),” Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, vol. 56, no. 2, p. 106080, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106080.

H. Mowbray, “In Beijing, coronavirus 2019-nCoV has created a siege mentality,” BMJ, p. m516, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.1136/bmj.m516.

M. Purgato, C. Gastaldon, D. Papola, M. van Ommeren, C. Barbui, and W. A. Tol, “Psychological therapies for the treatment of mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries affected by humanitarian crises,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., vol. 2018, no. 7, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011849.pub2.

D. Felce, Quality of life: the scope of the term and its breadth of measurement David Felce and Jonathan Perry. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes, 1997.

R. E. Renwick, I. E. Brown, and M. E. Nagler, Quality of life in health promotion and rehabilitation: Conceptual approaches, issues, and applications. Sage Publications, Inc, 1996.

S. I. Sarma and G. J. Byrne, “Relationship between anxiety and quality of life in older mental health patients,” Australas. J. Ageing, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 201–204, Sep. 2014, doi: 10.1111/ajag.12102.

N. D. Cahyani, J. E. Tyaswati, and D. A. Rachmawati, “Hubungan antara Tingkat Kecemasan dengan Kualitas Hidup pada Pasien Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) yang Menjalani Hemodialisis di RSD dr. Soebandi Jember (Correlation between the Level of Anxiety and Quality of Life of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients,” Pustaka Kesehat., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 210–217, 2016.

M. A. Rahman et al., “Factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia,” Global. Health, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 95, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1186/s12992-020-00624-w.

N. R. Carlson, Fisiologi Perilaku, 11th ed. Jakarta: Erlangga, 2015.

I. Mardiana, T. Susanto, and L. A. Susumaningrum, “Coping Strategies and Quality of Life Among Older People with Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Cogitare Enferm., vol. 26, 2021.

M. Oles and P. Oles, “Coping Style and Quality of Life in Elderly Patients with Vision Disturbances,” J. Ophthalmol., vol. 2014, pp. 1–6, 2014, doi: 10.1155/2014/584627.

N. Herawati and D. Deharnita, “Hubungan karakteristik dengan kejadian depresi pada lansia,” J. Keperawatan Jiwa, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 183, Aug. 2019, doi: 10.26714/jkj.7.2.2019.185-192.

S. Sutinah and M. Maulani, “Hubungan Pendidikan, Jenis Kelamin dan Status Perkawinan dengan Depresi pada Lansia,” J. Endur., vol. 2, no. 2, p. 209, Jun. 2017, doi: 10.22216/jen.v2i2.1931.

D. Fijianto, H. Rejeki, and D. P. Aryati, “Hubungan Tingkat Pendidikan dengan Strategi Koping Warga Binaan Pemasyarakatan di Lapas Kelas II B Brebes,” J. Keperawatan Muhammadiyah, vol. 6, no. 1, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.30651/jkm.v6i1.7155.

U. Orth, R. W. Robins, and K. F. Widaman, “Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes.,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 102, no. 6, p. 1271, 2012.

N. Sisi and R. Ismahudin, “Hubungan Usia dan Jenis Kelamin dengan Tingkat Depresi pada Lansia di Posyandu Lansia Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Wonorejo Samarinda,” Borneo Student Res., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 895–900, 2020.

R. Mojtabai, “Diagnosing Depression in Older Adults in Primary Care,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 370, no. 13, pp. 1180–1182, Mar. 2014, doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1311047.

I. A. Bhayu, N. Ratep, and W. Westa, “Gambaran faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi tingkat depresi pada lanjut usia di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Kubu II Januari-Februari 2014,” E-Jurnal Med. Udayana, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2015.

S. Bachri, Z. Cholid, and A. Rochim, “Perbedaan Tingkat Kecemasan Pasien Berdasarkan Usia, Jenis Kelamin, Tingkat Pendidikan dan Pengalaman Pencabutan Gigi Di RSGM FKG Universitas Jember (The Differences Patients Anxiety Level Based on Age, Sex, Education level and Tooth Extraction Experience,” Pustaka Kesehat., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 138–144, 2017.

G. S. Redjeki and H. Tambunan, “Faktor–Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Kecemasan Lanjut Usia Di Puskesmas Johar Baru II Jakarta,” J. Kesehat. Saelmakers PERDANA, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 83–90, 2019, doi: 10.32524/jksp.v2i1.199.

L. M. Azizah, Keperawatan Lanjut Usia. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2011.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

View IJPHS Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.