Comparing well-being among rural and urban Indonesian older people: a quantitative analysis of the related factors

The Maria Meiwati Widagdo, Maria Fransiska Pudjohartono, Meilina Meilina, Angela Rosalia Mete, Adhiyasa Primagupita, Kadek Dewi Armitha Putri Sudarsana


Residential area has been identified as a factor that influences the well-being of older people. This study aimed to compare the well-being of older people living in urban and rural areas in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, and analyze the predictors of well-being. A total of 141 (79 rural and 62 urban) older people participated in this study. Well-being was assessed using the world health organization-five (WHO-5) well-being index. The factors measured included sociodemographic data (age, sex, educational level, living arrangements, and current employment status), physical function, cognitive function, depression, independence, and attitude towards aging. Data of the two groups were compared using t-tests and Chi-square analysis. Correlations with well-being were analyzed using univariate correlation and multivariate hierarchical regression. The urban group had slightly older age, higher education, lower mobility and balance, higher attitude scores, and higher well-being. Depression was a significant variable in well-being for both communities. Physical capacity was an important factor in urban populations, while well-being in rural areas was better predicted by independence and cognitive function. The results suggest that there are similar and different correlates of the well-being of rural and urban older people, recommending different programs to enhance the well-being of older people living in different areas.

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International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

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