Impact of socioeconomic change and hygiene sanitation during pandemic covid-19 towards stunting: an analytical study in coastal area

Diyah Arini, Dwi Ernawati, Dewinta Hayudanti, Arie Dwi Alristina


The global COVID-19 pandemic has raised the risk of malnutrition in children, particularly those under the age of five, including stunting. Stunting is common in low-income regions, when families cannot afford nutritious meals. Certain types of food may not be available or cheap for some families during the COVID-19 epidemic. Stunting may become more common as a result of changes in family socioeconomic circumstances, personal cleanliness, and environmental sanitation during the pandemic. This study is to determine the effect of socioeconomic factors and hygiene sanitation during COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of stunting in coastal areas. This type of research was analytical survey with cross sectional approach. The total sample was 3886 families who had children had toddlers aged 0-59 months in the coastal areas in Surabaya City, Indonesia. The instrument in this study was filling out a questionnaire using Google Form on socioeconomic and hygiene sanitation factors to determine the incidence of stunting. Socioeconomic determinant which impacted stunting was family income. While whole hygiene and sanitation determinants have significant impact to stunting by chi square test (pvalue=0,002). Highest odds ratio from logistic regression was 15,4 higher between other socioeconomic determinants. Whereas the hygiene and sanitation factor which has the highest impact was hand-washing habit with odds ratio 75,3. Hand-washing habit has significance impact which was proved by chi square test (pvalue=0,000). Low family income, hand-washing habits, clean water sources, sewer access, waste management, and healthy latrine have significant impact to malnutrition, especially stunting.


FAO. 2020. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in action. Rome.

Indonesia Basic Health Research (Riset Kesehatan Dasar). 2018. Research and Development Department. Ministry of Health, Indonesia.

Hilton, Jennie. 2016. Five Proven Measures to Reduce Stunting. Livelihood and Food Security Funds.

Indonesian Ministry of Health. 2018. Sanitation Coverage 34 Provinces in Indonesia: Data, Findings, and Recommendations.

Nilawati, DA and Lailatul Muniroh. 2020. International Journal of Public Health. doi: 10.20473/ijph.vl15il.2020.266-275 Received 31 May 2017, received in revised form 11 June 2017, Accepted 15 July 2017, Published online: December 2020

Brian Chu, Michael Liu, Eric C Leas, Benjamin M Althouse, and John W Ayers. 2020. Effect size reporting among prominent health journals: a case study of odds ratios. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2021 Aug; 26(4): 184. doi: 10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111569.

Buletin Jendela Data dan Informasi Kesehatan.. 2015. The Situation of Short Toddlers in Indonesia, Center for Data and Information of the Indonesian Ministry of Health. Situasi Balita Pendek di Indonesia, Pusat Data dan Infomasi Kementrian Kesehatan RI.

Decision of The Governor of East Java Number 188/538/KPTS/013/2021 about district/city Minimum Wage in East Java in 2021.

Pacheco, Cipriano DR, Picauly I, Sinaga M. Health, Food Consumption, Social Economy, and Stunting Incidency in Timor Leste. J Kesehat Masy; 2017.

Yanti, Tisna and Diah Adni Fauziah. 2021. The Effect of Family Income on Stunting Incident in Preschool Children at Bogor City During COVID-19 Pandemic. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, April-June 2021, Vol. 12, No. 2.

Izah N, Zulfiana E, Rahmanindar N. 2020. Effect of Family Characteristics on Stunting Events in Toddlers Aged 6-59 Months. J Kebidanan Midwiferia.

UNICEF. 2015. Gender equality.

Sukut, SS, Yuni Sufyanti Arif, Nuzul Qur’aniati. 2015. Factors Correlated With The Incidence Of Diarrhea In Infants with Nola J.Pender Approach in Emergency Room of RSUD Ruteng. Jurnal Pediomaternal Vol. 3 No. 2 April Oktober 2015. Airlngga University.

Eshete H, Yewelsew Abebe, Eskindir Loha, Teklemichael Gebru, and Tesfalem Tesheme. Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-sectional Study. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2017 Mar; 27(2): 155–162. doi: 10.4314/ejhs.v27i2.8

Hanifah L, Wulansari R, Meiandayati R, Laksminingsih E. Stunting Trends and Associated Factors among Indonesian Children aged 0-23 Months: Evidence from Indonesian Family Life Surveys (IFLS) 2000, 2007 and 2014. Mal J of Nutr. 2018;24(3):315-322.

Dorado, CG, S., Cornselsen, L., Smith, R. et al. 2019. Economic globalization, nutrition and health: a review of quantitative evidence. Global Health 15, 15 (2019).

Syihab, SF, Mesa Rahmi Stephani, Isti Kumalasari, Adang Suherman. 2021. Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Stunting and Motor Skill Development of Toddlers in Urban and Rural Areas. Jurnal kesehatan masyarakat Vol 16, No 3 (2021).

Profil Kesehatan Indonesia. 2019. Indonesia Ministry of Health.

UNICEF. 2021. Malnutrition.

Kementrian Koordinator Bidang Pembangunan Manusia dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia. 2020. Hand Washing with Soap Effectively Prevents the Spread of Germs/Virus.

Guilera JV, Priti Parikh, Hemant Chaturvedi, Lena Ciric & Monica Lakhanpaul. 2021. Towards transformative WASH: an integrated case study exploring environmental, sociocultural, economic and institutional risk factors contributing to infant enteric infections in rural tribal India. BMC Public Health 21, 1331 (2021).

Kwami CS, Samuel Godfrey, Hippolyte Gavilan, Monica Lakhanpaul and Priti Parikh. 2019. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: Linkages with Stunting in Rural Ethiopia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Oct 9;16(20):3793. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16203793

Humphrey J.H., Mbuya M.N.N., Ntozini R., Moulton L.H., Stoltzfus R.J., Tavengwa N.V., Mutasa K., Majo F., Mutasa B., Mangwadu G., et al. 2019. Independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene, and improved complementary feeding, on child stunting and anaemia in rural Zimbabwe: A cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Glob. Health. 2019;7:e132–e147. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30374-7.

Cumming O., Curtis V. 2018. Implications of WASH Benefits trials for water and sanitation. Lancet Glob. Health. 2018;6:e613–e614. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30192-X.

Purba, N., & Gusar, M. R. S. 2020. Clean and Healthy Lifestyle Behavior (PHBS Program) for Children with Intellectual Disability. Jurnal Pendidikan Usia Dini, 14(2), 275 - 287.

J.P.R. Sorensen, A. Sadhu, G. Sampath, S. Sugden, S. Dutta Gupta, D.J. Lapworth, B.P. Marchant, S. Pedley. 2016. Are sanitation interventions a threat to drinking water supplies in rural India? An application of tryptophan-like fluorescence. Water Research, Volume 88, 2016, Pages 923-932.

Soeracmad, Yuliani, Muhammad Ikhtiar, Agus Bintara S. 2019. Hubungan Sanitasi Lingkungan Rumah Tangga Dengan Kejadian Stunting Pada Anak Balita Di Puskesmas Wonomulyo Kabupaten polewali Mandar Tahun 2019. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, Vol. 5, No.2, Nov 2019. doi: 10.35329/jkesmas.v5i2.519

Russell F and Azzopardi P. 2019. WASH: A basic human right and essential intervention for child health and development The Lancet Global Health 7 e417

Badriyah L and Ahmad Syafiq. 2017. The association between sanitation, hygiene, and stunting in children under two-years (an analysis of Indonesia’s Basic Health Research, 2013). Makara J. Health Res. 21 35-41. doi:10.7454/msk.v21i2.6002

Rahman N, Napirah M R, Nadila D and Bohari. 2017. Determinants of stunting among children in urban families in Palu, Indonesia Pak. J. Nutr. 16 750-6. doi:10.3923/pjn.2017.750.756.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

View IJPHS Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.