COVID-19 Risk Perceptions Among Healthcare Workers During Early “New Behavior Norms” Phase

Lolita Lolita

Abstract


The COVID-19 pandemic poses a serious health threat among Indonesian healthcare workers. As front-line workers, they were facing higher risk due to the prolonged exposure of SARS-CoV-2. This study aims to explore various factors affecting perceived risk among healthcare professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among health practitioners who met the inclusion criteria of being over the age of 17 years and resided in Indonesia. This study was conducted at the early period of “new normal behavior’ from April to July 2020. The sampling technique was convenience sampling which involved collecting data through the online questionnaire. The data were analyzed through the Spearman correlation method using SPSS version 21.0. A total of 248 respondents were included in the final analysis. Overall, age (p=0.017), marital status (p=0.031), and health status (p=0.001) were found to have a significant effect on the COVID-19 risk perception among healthcare workers. Therefore, comprehensive COVID-19 risk communication should be established in order to optimize health behavior and crisis control management among healthcare workers. 


References


Z. Xu et al., “Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome.,” The Lancet. Respiratory medicine, vol. 8, no. 4. pp. 420–422, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X.

“WHO Indonesia, “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-18,” World Heal. Organ, 2020. .

H. Andriani, S.Si, Apt, M.Sc, Ph.D, “Effectiveness of Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) toward the New Normal Era during COVID-19 Outbreak: a Mini Policy Review,” J. Indones. Heal. Policy Adm., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 61–65, 2020, doi: 10.7454/ihpa.v5i2.4001.

L. Rosyanti and I. Hadi, “Dampak Psikologis dalam Memberikan Perawatan dan Layanan Kesehatan Pasien COVID-19 pada Tenaga Profesional Kesehatan,” Heal. Inf. J. Penelit., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 107–130, 2020, doi: 10.36990/hijp.vi.191.

L. Kang et al., “The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus.,” The lancet. Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 3. p. e14, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X.

S. C. Lam et al., “Perceived Risk and Protection From Infection and Depressive Symptoms Among Healthcare Workers in Mainland China and Hong Kong During COVID-19 ,” Frontiers in Psychiatry , vol. 11. p. 686, 2020, [Online]. Available: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00686.

D. Peres, J. Monteiro, M. Almeida, and R. Ladeira, “Risk Perception of COVID-19 Among the Portuguese Healthcare Professionals and General Population,” J. Hosp. Infect., vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 434–437, May 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.05.038.

V. F. Mukaromah and R. S. Nugroho, “Amnesty: 89 Health Workers in Indonesia Died, 878 Infected,” KOMPAS.COM, 2020. .

Y. Zolkefli, “Be Honest: Individuals’ Moral Responsibility within the COVID-19 Context,” Malaysian J. Med. Sci., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 144–147, 2020, doi: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.6.13.

M. Irham, “Corona virus: Why are health workers prone to contracting Covid-19 amid the government’s commitment to distribute PPE?,” BBC News Indonesia, 2020. .

S. Girma, L. Agenagnew, G. Beressa, Y. Tesfaye, and A. Alenko, “Risk perception and precautionary health behavior toward COVID-19 among health professionals working in selected public university hospitals in Ethiopia.,” PLoS One, vol. 15, no. 10, p. e0241101, 2020, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241101.

A. S. Bhagavathula, W. A. Aldhaleei, J. Rahmani, A. Mahabadi, and D. K. Bandari, “Novel Coronavirus ( COVID-19 ) Knowledge and Perceptions : A Survey of Healthcare Workers,” 2020.

J. Jacobs, M. Taylor, K. Agho, G. Stevens, M. Barr, and B. Raphael, “Factors associated with increased risk perception of pandemic influenza in australia,” Influenza Res. Treat., vol. 2010, p. 947906, 2010, doi: 10.1155/2010/947906.

R. O. Nanda et al., “Covid-19 risk perception among Indonesians in early stage of the outbreak,” Int. J. Public Heal. Sci., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 249–257, 2021, doi: 10.11591/ijphs.v10i2.20678.

A. Sriharan et al., “Occupational Stress, Burnout, and Depression in Women in Healthcare During COVID-19 Pandemic: Rapid Scoping Review,” Front. Glob. Women’s Heal., vol. 1, no. November, pp. 1–8, 2020, doi: 10.3389/fgwh.2020.596690.

G. Sharma, A. S. Volgman, and E. D. Michos, “Sex Differences in Mortality From COVID-19 Pandemic: Are Men Vulnerable and Women Protected?,” JACC. Case reports, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 1407–1410, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jaccas.2020.04.027.

D. M. Griffith et al., “Men and COVID-19: A Biopsychosocial Approach to Understanding Sex Differences in Mortality and Recommendations for Practice and Policy Interventions.,” Prev. Chronic Dis., vol. 17, p. E63, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.5888/pcd17.200247.

G. Giangreco, “Case fatality rate analysis of Italian COVID-19 outbreak.,” J. Med. Virol., vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 919–923, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1002/jmv.25894.

C. Niepel, D. Kranz, F. Borgonovi, V. Emslander, and S. Greiff, “The coronavirus (COVID-19) fatality risk perception of US adult residents in March and April 2020.,” Br. J. Health Psychol., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 883–888, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12438.

J. Torales et al., “Self-Perceived Stress During the Quarantine of COVID-19 Pandemic in Paraguay: An Exploratory Survey.,” Front. psychiatry, vol. 11, p. 558691, 2020, doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.558691.

E. Savoia, G. Argentini, D. Gori, E. Neri, R. Piltch-Loeb, and M. P. Fantini, “Factors associated with access and use of PPE during COVID-19: A cross-sectional study of Italian physicians.,” PLoS One, vol. 15, no. 10, p. e0239024, 2020, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239024.

W. Bruine de Bruin, “Age Differences in COVID-19 Risk Perceptions and Mental Health: Evidence From a National U.S. Survey Conducted in March 2020.,” J. Gerontol. B. Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci., vol. 76, no. 2, pp. e24–e29, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbaa074.

L. L. Carstensen, M. Pasupathi, U. Mayr, and J. R. Nesselroade, “Emotional experience in everyday life across the adult life span.,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 644–655, Oct. 2000.

B. Löwe et al., “A 4-item measure of depression and anxiety: validation and standardization of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) in the general population.,” J. Affect. Disord., vol. 122, no. 1–2, pp. 86–95, Apr. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.06.019.

A. B. Neubauer, J. M. Smyth, and M. J. Sliwinski, “Age Differences in Proactive Coping With Minor Hassles in Daily Life,” J. Gerontol. B. Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci., vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 7–16, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1093/geronb/gby061.

P. Klaiber, J. H. Wen, A. DeLongis, and N. L. Sin, “The Ups and Downs of Daily Life During COVID-19: Age Differences in Affect, Stress, and Positive Events,” Journals Gerontol. Ser. B, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. e30–e37, Feb. 2021, doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbaa096.

L. L. Carstensen, “The influence of a sense of time on human development,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5782, pp. 1913–1915, Jun. 2006, doi: 10.1126/science.1127488.

M. Yıldırım, G. Arslan, and A. Özaslan, “Perceived Risk and Mental Health Problems among Healthcare Professionals during COVID-19 Pandemic: Exploring the Mediating Effects of Resilience and Coronavirus Fear.,” Int. J. Ment. Health Addict., pp. 1–11, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00424-8.

T. Wise, T. D. Zbozinek, G. Michelini, C. C. Hagan, and D. Mobbs, “Changes in risk perception and self-reported protective behaviour during the first week of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.,” R. Soc. open Sci., vol. 7, no. 9, p. 200742, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.1098/rsos.200742.

L. Simione and C. Gnagnarella, “Differences Between Health Workers and General Population in Risk Perception, Behaviors, and Psychological Distress Related to COVID-19 Spread in Italy ,” Frontiers in Psychology , vol. 11. p. 2166, 2020, [Online]. Available: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02166.

A. Gorini et al., “Mental health and risk perception among Italian healthcare workers during the second month of the Covid-19 pandemic.,” Arch. Psychiatr. Nurs., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 537–544, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.apnu.2020.10.007.




DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v11i1.21252

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

View IJPHS Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.