Determinants of Health-related Quality of Life in Iranian Patients after Recovery from COVID-19: Demographic Influences and Insomnia

Mohsen Saffari, Amir H. Pakpour, Hormoz Sanaeinasab, Hojat Rashidi-Jahan, Hosein Mahmoudi, Faten Al-Zaben, Harold G. Koenig

Abstract


Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) may be affected by COVID-19. The current study sought to identify factors that may affect HRQoL in patients recovering from this infection in Iran.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study 258 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, participants completed a questionnaire approximately one month after hospital discharge when demographic and clinical factors (including insomnia) and HRQoL were assessed. The Insomnia Severity Index and Short Form Health Survey (SF-8) were administered at that time.  Logistic regression was used to examine independent correlates of the physical and mental health components of HRQoL.

Results: In bivariate analyses, age, gender, marital status, education, having child, early physician visit, early diagnosis, early hospitalization, symptom type, Rhesus factor, and level of insomnia were associated with various components of HRQoL (p<0.05). In multivariate analyses, poorer physical HRQoL was independently associated with female gender (OR= 4.53, 95% CI=2.22-2.29), initial symptom of cough (OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.26-5.94), and insomnia (OR=2.74, 95% CI=1.22-6.14).  Poorer mental HRQoL was associated with being age 40 years or older (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.02-3.54), female gender (OR=2.48, 95% CI=1.26-4.88), initial symptom being cough (OR=3.12, 95% CI=1.46-6.68), and insomnia (sub-threshold insomnia, OR=3.19, 95% CI, 1.51-6.74, to severe insomnia, OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.35-11.07). 

Conclusion: Older age, female gender, initial symptom of cough, and insomnia are associated with worse HRQoL in Iranian patients recovered from COVID-19.  Healthcare professionals should be aware that these individuals may be it greater risk for poor quality of life following hospital discharge.

References


World Health Organization, Weekly epidemiological update - 2 March 2021, 2021, WHO: Geneva.

Breitling, L.P., Global epidemiology and socio-economic development correlates of the reproductive ratio of COVID-19. Int Health, 2021.

World Health Organization, WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard, 2021, WHO: Geneva.

Teo, S.P., Review of COVID-19 vaccines and its evidence in older adults. Ann Geriatr Med Res, 2021.

Hodgson, S.H., et al., What defines an efficacious COVID-19 vaccine? A review of the challenges assessing the clinical efficacy of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Lancet Infect Dis, 2021. 21(2): p. e26-e35.

Clemente-Suarez, V.J., et al., Social and Psychophysiological Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Extensive Literature Review. Front Psychol, 2020. 11: p. 580225.

Tsamakis, K., et al., COVID-19 and its consequences on mental health (Review). Exp Ther Med, 2021. 21(3): p. 244.

Soltani, S., et al., COVID-19 associated central nervous system manifestations, mental and neurological symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Neurosci, 2021.

Jia, F. and X. Liu, Using social media to analyze public psychological status during the recovery period of COVID-19 in China. J Public Health (Oxf), 2020.

Bonaccorsi, G., et al., Economic and social consequences of human mobility restrictions under COVID-19. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2020. 117(27): p. 15530-15535.

Qu, G., et al., Health related quality of life of COVID-19 patients after discharge: A multicenter follow up study. J Clin Nurs, 2021.

Santus, P., et al., Changes in quality of life and dyspnoea after hospitalization in COVID-19 patients discharged at home. Multidiscip Respir Med, 2020. 15(1): p. 713.

Chen, K.Y., et al., Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors for COVID-19 Patients, a Follow-Up at One Month. Front Psychiatry, 2020. 11: p. 668.

Arab-Zozani, M., et al., Health-Related Quality of Life and its Associated Factors in COVID-19 Patients. Osong Public Health Res Perspect, 2020. 11(5): p. 296-302.

Rice, V.H., Handbook of stress, coping, and health : implications for nursing research, theory, and practice. 2nd ed. 2012, Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. xxxi, 588 p.

Park, K.H., et al., Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lifestyle, mental health, and quality of life of adults in South Korea. PLoS One, 2021. 16(2): p. e0247970.

Iqubal, A., et al., COVID-19 and cardiovascular complications: an update from the underlying mechanism to consequences and possible clinical intervention. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 2021: p. 1-10.

Jarrahi, A., et al., Neurological consequences of COVID-19: what have we learned and where do we go from here? J Neuroinflammation, 2020. 17(1): p. 286.

Dong, Z.Y., et al., The Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Abnormal Liver Function, Digestive System Disease and Liver Disease in COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol, 2021. 55(1): p. 67-76.

Fernandes Valente Takeda, C., et al., Case Report: Recurrent Clinical Symptoms of COVID-19 in Healthcare Professionals: A Series of Cases from Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2020. 103(5): p. 1993-1996.

Mendez-Gimenez, A., et al., Physical Activity and Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in the Spanish Population during Confinement due to COVID-19. Psicothema, 2021. 33(1): p. 111-117.

Maurovich-Horvat, E., T.Z. Pollmacher, and K. Sonka, The effects of sleep and sleep deprivation on metabolic, endocrine and immune parameters. Prague Med Rep, 2008. 109(4): p. 275-85.

Akinci, T. and H. Melek Basar, Relationship between sleep quality and the psychological status of patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Sleep Med, 2021. 80: p. 167-170.

Lange, T., S. Dimitrov, and J. Born, Effects of sleep and circadian rhythm on the human immune system. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2010. 1193: p. 48-59.

Sousa, M.E.P., et al., Invariant Natural Killer T cells resilience to paradoxical sleep deprivation-associated stress. Brain Behav Immun, 2020. 90: p. 208-215.

Deng, J., et al., The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances in COVID-19 patients: a meta-analysis. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2021. 1486(1): p. 90-111.

Pedhazur, E.J., Multiple regression in behavioral research : explanation and prediction. 3rd ed. 1997, Forth Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. xiv, 1058 p.

Ghafari, S., et al., Effectiveness of applying progressive muscle relaxation technique on quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis. J Clin Nurs, 2009. 18(15): p. 2171-9.

Montazeri, A., et al., The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12): factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity. BMC Public Health, 2009. 9: p. 341.

Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, K., et al., The Insomnia Severity Index: cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of a Persian version. Qual Life Res, 2014. 23(2): p. 533-7.

Jiang, Z., et al., Psychological distress and sleep quality of COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, a lockdown city as the epicenter of COVID-19. J Psychiatr Res, 2020.

Ma, Y.F., et al., Prevalence of depression and its association with quality of life in clinically stable patients with COVID-19. J Affect Disord, 2020. 275: p. 145-148.

Sivertsen, B., et al., Insomnia as a risk factor for ill health: results from the large population-based prospective HUNT Study in Norway. J Sleep Res, 2014. 23(2): p. 124-32.

Taylor, D.J., et al., Is Insomnia a Risk Factor for Decreased Influenza Vaccine Response? Behav Sleep Med, 2017. 15(4): p. 270-287.

Hernandez-Biette, A., et al., Risk factors for later hospitalization of patients discharged from an emergency department with nonsevere COVID-19 symptoms. Emergencias, 2020. 32(6): p. 413-415.




DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v11i1.21039

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

View IJPHS Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.