Environmental Sanitation Factors as Prevalence Support Soil Transmitted Helminths to Elementary School Students

Ibrahim Edy Sapada, Wita Asmalinda


The distribution of STH is closely related to the defecation facilities for rural communities, such as: the habit of defecating openly on the ground, in gardens and using open latrines in rivers. The aims of this study was to determine the correlation between the prevalence of STH infection and environmental sanitation factors in school children. This type of research is an analytical epidemiological study in two different areas. The research design used was a cross sectional study. This research was conducted in Bukit Village and Srikembang Village, Betung District, Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatra for 30 days. The research sample was 252 SDN students. The data analysis showed that the infection intensity of A. lumbricoides in SDN 1 Bukit was higher than SDN 1 Sri Kembang, while for T. trichiura it was higher in SDN 1 Sri Kembang with mild to very severe infection degrees. Supporting factors for transmission in the two research locations were open defecation, gardens or open latrines, and the type of house with dirt floors. It is suggested to do further research on socio-economic risk factor variables.


De Silva, N. R., Brooker, S., HotezP J., Montresor, A., Engels, D., & SavioliL., et al., "Soil-transmitted helminth infections: Updating the global picture," Trends in Parasitology : 19(12) : 547–551, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.pt. 2003.10.00. Retrieve from : https://www.cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S1471-4922%2803%2900275-7

Noviastuti A. R.,"Infection Soil Transmitted Helminths," Journal Majority, 4(8): 107–116, 2015. Retrieve from : https://juke.kedokteran.unila.ac.id/index.php/majority/article/view/1483

RiswandaZ., & KurniawanB .,"InfectionSoil-Transmitted Helminth : Ascariasis , T. TT. trichiura and Hookworms Soil-transmitted helminth infections : Ascariasis, T. T. trichiura and Hookworm," Medical Journal of Lampung University, 5(4):61–68, 2016. Retrieve from http://juke.kedokteran.unila.ac.id/index.php/majority/ article/view/925

Suriptiastuti."Infections Soil Transmitted Helminth: Ascariasis, Trichuriasis Hookworms," UniversaMedicinamagazine, 25(2): 84-91, 2006. Retrieve from:https://juke.kedokteran.unila.ac. id/index.php/majority/article/ download/1483/132.accessed March 22, 2019.

Wahyuni, D.,"The Relationship between Cutting Nails and Using Footwear on the Risk of STH Infection in Children in Sri Meranti Village, Rumbai District, Kota Pekan Baru," Journal of Midwifery Science, STIKES Al-Insyirah Pekan Baru, 5(1): 27-34, 2016. Retrieve from: https:// jurnal. stikes-alinsyirah.ac.id/index. php/kebidanan/ article/download/7/2/.

Onggowoluwo J.S., Parasitologi Medik (Helmintologi) Pendekatan Aspek Identifikasi, Diagnostik dan Klinik, Jakarta: EGC, 2002.

Primada, A., Nurdian, Y., Agustina, D., Hermansyah B., and Armiyanti., et al.,"Eosinophilia As A Predictor Morbidity of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases Among Widodoren Plantation Workers in Jember," Journal of Vocation Health Studies. 3, 47-52, 2019. Doi. http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jvhs. V3.I2.2019.47-52. Retrieve from: https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JVHS/article/view/16839.

Gandahusada, S., H.D. Ilahude, and W. Pribadi. Medical Parasitology Lecture Collection. FKUI Publisher Center, Jakarta. Indonesia, 2000. Retrieve from: https://scholar.google.co.id /scholar?hl= en&as_sdt=0%2C5&as_vis=1&q=Gandahusada%2C+S.%2C+H.D.+Ilahude%2C+dan+W.+Pribadi.+2000.+Kumpulan+Kuliah+Parasitologi+Kedokteran.+Balai+Penerbit+FKUI%2C+Jakarta.+Indonesia.&btnG=

Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia,"General Guidelines for the National Program for the Eradication of Worms in the Decentralization Era." Jakarta, 2016. Retrieve from: https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?q=depkes+ri,+2016.+pedoman+umum+program+nasional+pemberantasan+kecacingan+di+era+desentralisasi.+jakarta.&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart

Sandy, S., Sumarni, S., and Soeyoko,"Analysis Model of Risk Factors Influencing Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection on Primary Students in District Arso Keerom Regency," Papua Media Litbangkes, 25(1): 1-14, 2015.

World Health Organization."Soil- Transmitted- Helminth Infactions," Media Centre. 2016.Available from: http://www. who.int/ medicacentre, accessed March 23, 2019

Sapada, I. E., & Asmalinda, W. (2020). Prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminths in Elementary School Students with Behavioral Risk Factors. Jurnal Aisyah : Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan, 5(2): 205–214. Doi https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.30604/jika.v5i2.368 A Retrieve from : https://www.aisyah. journalpress.id/ index.php/jika/article/view/5232/pdf.

Awasthi, S., Bundy, D. A. P., & Savioli, L.,"Helminthic infections," British Medical Journal: 327(7412) : 431–433. 2003. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7412.431.

Cepot-Robins, TJ., Liebert, MA., Gildner TE., Urlacher, SS., Colehour, AM., Snodgrass JJ, C Felicia, Madimenos ang Sugiyama, LS. et al.,"Soil-Transmitted Helminth Prevalence and Infection Intensity Among Geographically and Economically Distinct Shuar Communities in The Ecuadorian Amazon," Journal American Society of Parasitologists : 100(50): 598-607, 2014.

Shang, Y., Lin, H.T., Sui, SZ., Ying, D.C., Yi, C.Y., and Shao, X.L., et al.,"Stunting and Soil- Transmitted- Helminth Infactions among Sbhool Age Pupils in Rural Areas of Sounthern China," Journal Parasites & Vectors, 3(97): 1-6, 2010. Doi. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-3-97 Retrieve from: https://parasitesandvectors. biomed central.com/articles/10.1186/ 1756-3305-3-97.

Alelign, T., Degarege, A., & Erko, B.,"Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Durbete Town, Northwestern Ethiopia," Journal of Parasitology Research : 2015(1), 2015. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/641602.

Ngonjo, T., Okoyo, C., Andove, J., Simiyu, E., Lelo, A. E., Kabiru, E., Kihara, J., & Mwandawiro, C. et al., Current Status of Soil-Transmitted Helminths among School Children in Kakamega County, Western Kenya. Journal of Parasitology Research, 2016: 1-9. 2016. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7680124.

Brahmantya, I. B. Y., Iqra, H. H. P., Hartawan, I. G. N. B. R. M., Anjani, I. A. W., Sudarmaja, I. M., & Ryalino, C., et al.,"Risk factors and prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections," Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences: 8 : 521–524, 2020. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2020.4440.

Sofiana, L and Kelen, MSJ.,"Factors Related to Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection of primary School Children," Unnes Journal of Public Health: 7(1); 55-61, 2018. Doi: https://doi.org /10.15294/ujph.v7i1.17400https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/ujph/article/view/17400.

Hairani, B., Waris, L., & Juhairiyah."Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths ( sth ) in primary school children in subdistrict of Malinau Kota , District of Malinau , East Kalimantan Province Prevalensi soil transmitted helminth," Jurnal Buski, 5(1); 43–48, 2014.

Glinz, D., Silue, K.G, Knopp, S., Lohourignon, Yao, K.P., Steinmann, PRinaldi, L., et al.,"Comparing Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato-Katz, Koga Agar Plate, Ether-Concentration, and FLOTAC for Schistosomamansoni and Soil-Transmitted Helminths," Journal Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases 4(7): 1-10, 2010.

Ulfa Ali, R., Zulkarnaini, Z., & Affandi, D.,"Relationship of Personal Hygiene and Environmental Sanitation with the Incidence of Worms (Soil Transmitted Helminth) in Vegetable Farmers in Maharatu Village, Marpoyan Damai District, Pekanbaru City" Dinamika Lingkungan Indonesia, 3(1): 24-32, 2016. Doi: https://doi.org/10.31258/dli.3.1.p.24-32.

Annisa, S., Dalilah and Anwar, C.,"Relationship between Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH) and Nutritional Status in 200 Public Elementary School Students, Kemasrindo Subdistrict, Kertapati District, Palembang City" . SriwijayaMedical Magazine, 2: 92-104, 2018.

Nuryanti, N.M., and Subrata, I.M.,"Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Infection in Eleementary School Students inHighland and Lowland Areas of Gianyae Regency," JurnalKesehatan Mayarakat, 13(3): 323 - 330, 2018. Retrieve from:http://joutnal.unnes.ac.id/ nju/index. php/ kemas

Anwar, C. (1997). Roundworm disease in elementary school children and their parents in the village of Bungin Musi Banyuasin. Sriwijaya Magazine, 1(33): 28-30.

Samad, H.," Relationship between Infection and Soil Pollution by Soil Transmitted Worms and Behavior of Elementary School Children in Tembung Village, Medan Tembung District Tesis pada Program Studi Kedokteran Tropis Pasca Sarjana Universitas Sumatera Utara, 2019.

Albonico, M., Montresor, A., Crompton, D. W. T., & Savioli, L.,"Intervention for the Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Community,"Advances in Parasitology, 61(February): 311–348, 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(05)61008-1.

Kattula, D., Sarkar, R., Ajjampur, SSR, Minz S., Levecke, B, Muliyil and Kang, G., et al.,"Prevalence & risk Factors for Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection Among School Children in South India," Journal Indian Journal Med Res, 139(1): 76–82, 2015. Doi: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3994744/ Page

Merisa Damanik, D., Soeyoko, S., & Sutomo, A. H.,"Sanitation of House and School, Personal Hygiene and Infection of Soil Transmitted Helminths among Elementary School Students," International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS), 3(1): 43, 2014. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v3i1.4673

Zerdo, Z., Yohanes, T., & Tariku, B. (2016). Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Parasitology Research, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4737891

DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v10i4.20966


  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

View IJPHS Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.