Deginet Kebede Belihu, Girma Worku Obsie, Melese Tadessa Aredo


Household water handling practice is very critical for prevention of water borne communicable disease. This study aimed to assess household water handling practice and associated factors in rural kebeles of Tiyo woreda,  Arsi zone South East Ethiopia.

Community-based cross-sectional study was employed among 403 households by using simple random sampling techniques from September 02-25/2019. Data were collected by interviewer administered structured questionnaire, entered into EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS Version 20. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify the association between the dependent and independent variables by computing the odds ratios with a 95% confidence intervals at P-value< 0.05. A total of 403 households participated with an overall response rate was 98%. More than fifty percent (53.3%) were found to handle their drinking water properly. Level of education [AOR=3.341,95% CI:(1.536,7.267], monthly income [AOR= 0.291, 95%CI:(0.100,0.848], know about safe water handling [AOR=1.721, 95%CI: (1.103, 2.681], frequency of water collected per day [AOR=3.049, 95%CI: (1.476, 6.299], knowing water treatment [AOR=1.588,95%CI: (1.015,2.485]and methods with draw water from container [AOR=1.840, 95% CI: (1.111, 3.046)] were found to be factors associated with proper water handling practices. Unsafe water handling practiced is high irrespective of the efforts being done the ministry of health and stakeholders were found to be significantly associated in the study area. Thus, Education on water handling practice with emphasis on the consequences of negative impacts of poor water handling practice and implement treating of water at house holds’ level insured good practice.


Sobsey, M. D. Managing water in the home: Accelerated health gains from improved water supply.WHO/SDE/WSH/02.07, 2002, World Health Organization, Geneva 1−83

WHO/UNICEF, 2005. Water for life: making it happen, WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, World Health Organization, Geneva

World Health Organization (WHO), Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd Edition, 2008, Volume 1, Recommendations, WHO, Geneva.

Wright, J. Guandry. S. Household drinking water in developing countries: Systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point of use. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9(1), 2004, 106−117

Wright, J., Guandry, S. Cornroy, R.Household drinking water in developing countries: Systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point of use. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9(1), 2004,106−117(5)

Tadesse, D., Desta, A., Geyid, A., Girma, W., Fisseha, S., Schmoll, O., 2007. Rapid assessment of drinking water quality in The Federal Republic of Ethiopia: Country Report, WHO/MOH/UNICEF/ EHNRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 18−37

Abebe, B.and Dejene, H. Bacteriological and Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water Sources and Household Water Handling Practice Among Rural Communities of Bona District, Sidama Zone- Zouthern, Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health, 2015. 3 (5): p. 782-789.

Amenu, D., Menkir, S., and Gobena, T. Assessment of water handling practices among rural communities of Dire Dawa Administrative Council, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 2013. 2 (2): p. 75.

SeidTiku, Legesse Worku and kebede Faris, Factor affecting water quality from source to home in Tehuledereworeda, Northeast Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Science,2003, 13 (2): 94&106

Sharma, H. R., et al., Water Handling Practices and Level of Contamination Between Source and Point-of-Use in Kolladiba Town, Ethiopia Environ. We Int. J. Sci. Tech., 2013. 8: p. 25-35.

Wanyiri JW, et al., Infectious diarrhea in Kenya, Journal of AIDS HIV Res. antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV/AIDS patients Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical (2013). 178

Drinking water quality in Ethiopia A Report by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia in Collaboration with the Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity, LSMS, World Bank, UNICEF, WHO, and JMP December 2017

Admassu, M, A survey of bacteriological quality of drinking water in North Gondar Zone. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2004, 18(2), 112−115.

Tabor, M., Kibret, M., Abera, Bacteriological and physicochemical quality of drinking water and hygiene-sanitation practices of the consumers in Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences,2011, 22(1),19−26

Temsgen, E. and Hameed, S. Assessment of Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological quality of drinking water at sources and Household in Adama town, Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2015. 9 (5): p. 413-.

Milkiyas, T., Mulugeta, K and Bayeh, A. Bacteriological and Physico-Chmical Quality of Drinking water and hygiene-sanitation practices of the consumers in Bahirdar city, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci., 2011. 21 (1): p. 22-26.

Rufener S. Quality of Drinking-water at Source and Point-of-consumption—Drinking Cup As a High Potential Recontamination Risk, Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 2010, 28(1), 34−41.

Tambekar, D. H. Household water management: A systematic study of bacteriological contamination between source and point-of-use, 2008, American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science 3(2), 241-246



  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

View IJPHS Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.