Knowledge, Precautionary Actions, and Perceived Risk of COVID-19 among Indonesians before the Outbreak

Ratih Oktri Nanda, Lolita Lolita, Wiwik Indayati, Ivong Rusdiyanti, Azis Ikhsanudin, Silvia Mareti

Abstract


Novel coronavirus was first identified in China in December 2019, causing several cases of the new type of pneumonia. The exported cases were found in other countries, including countries in the Southeast Asia region. At the same time, no cases were confirmed in Indonesia. We aimed to assess COVID-19 related knowledge, precautionary actions, and perceived risk among general Indonesian population when there were no confirmed cases in Indonesia. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 382 participants aged 17 years and above residing in Indonesia. The data was collected through the online questionnaire from February 19th to February 29th 2020. The average score of COVID-19 related knowledge was 88.0%, whereas 83.8% of the participants had a high level of knowledge. The average score of taking precautionary actions was 77.4%, and 65.7% had a high level of performance. In terms of the perceived risk of COVID-19, only 11.3% of the participants perceived themselves likely to acquire COVID-19 when compared with other diseases or accidents. The perceived risk of COVID-19 was significantly associated with precautionary action (P<0.05). Perceived risk of COVID-19 was at a low level when there were no confirmed cases. Effective strategies of risk communication are needed to improve precautionary actions to prevent COVID-19. 

References


Zhu, N. et al., "A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 382, no. 8, pp. 727-733, 2020/02/20 2020, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017.

Wu, Z. and McGoogan J. M., "Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention," JAMA, vol. 323, no. 13, pp. 1239-1242, 2020, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2648.

WHO. "Coronavirus (COVID-19)." https://covid19.who.int/ (accessed September 3, 2020)

Li, Q. et al., "Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia," (in eng), N Engl J Med, Jan 29 2020, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.

WHO. "Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations." https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations (accessed February 20, 2020).

Wang, L. et al., "Coronavirus disease 2019 in elderly patients: Characteristics and prognostic factors based on 4-week follow-up," (in eng), J Infect, Mar 30 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.019.

Thanh Le, T. et al., "The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape," (in eng), Nat Rev Drug Discov, Apr 9 2020, doi: 10.1038/d41573-020-00073-5.

Guan, W. J. et al., "Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China," (in eng), N Engl J Med, Feb 28 2020, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032.

WHO. "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak," ed, 2020 (Accessed April 20, 2020)

Zhong, B. L. et al., "Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey," (in eng), Int J Biol Sci, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1745-1752, 2020, doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45221.

Zhang, M. et al., "Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Henan, China," (in eng), J Hosp Infect, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 183-187, Jun 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.012.

Brewer, N. T., Chapman G. B., Gibbons F. X., Gerrard M., McCaul K. D., and Weinstein N. D., "Meta-analysis of the relationship between risk perception and health behaviour: the example of vaccination," (in eng), Health Psychol, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 136-45, Mar 2007, doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.26.2.136.

Brug, J., Aro A. R., Oenema A., de Zwart O., Richardus J. H., and Bishop G. D., "SARS risk perception, knowledge, precautions, and information sources, the Netherlands," (in eng), Emerg Infect Dis, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1486-9, Aug 2004, doi: 10.3201/eid1008.040283.

Duan, T., Jiang H., Deng X., Zhang Q., and Wang F., "Government Intervention, Risk Perception, and the Adoption of Protective Action Recommendations: Evidence from the COVID-19 Prevention and Control Experience of China," (in eng), Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 17, no. 10, May 13 2020, doi: 10.3390/ijerph17103387.

CDC. "Coronavirus (COVID-19)." https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html (accessed February 18th 2020)

de Zwart, O. et al., "Perceived threat, risk perception, and efficacy beliefs related to SARS and other (emerging) infectious diseases: results of an international survey," (in eng), International journal of behavioural medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 30-40, 2009, doi: 10.1007/s12529-008-9008-2.

Djalante, R. et al., "Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: Period of January to March 2020," (in eng), vol. 6, p. 100091, Apr 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100091.

Lau, J. T., Kim J. H., Tsui H., and Griffiths S., "Perceptions related to human avian influenza and their associations with anticipated psychological and behavioural responses at the onset of outbreak in the Hong Kong Chinese general population," (in eng), Am J Infect Control, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 38-49, Feb 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2006.07.010.

Deurenberg-Yap, M., Foo L. L., Low Y. Y., Chan S. P., Vijaya K., and Lee M., "The Singaporean response to the SARS outbreak: knowledge sufficiency versus public trust," Health Promotion International, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 320-326, 2005, doi: 10.1093/heapro/dai010.

De Salazar, P. M., Niehus R., Taylor A., Buckee C. O., and Lipsitch M., "Using predicted imports of 2019-nCoV cases to determine locations that may not be identifying all imported cases," medRxiv, p. 2020.02.04.20020495, 2020, doi: 10.1101/2020.02.04.20020495.

Jiang, X. et al., "The Perceived Threat of SARS and its Impact on Precautionary Actions and Adverse Consequences: A Qualitative Study Among Chinese Communities in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands," International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 58-67, 2009/03/01 2009, doi: 10.1007/s12529-008-9005-5.

Sjoberg, L. and Drottz-Sjoberg B., "Risk Perception of Nuclear Waste: Experts and the Public. Risk Perception Report 16," Center for Risk Research, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden, 1994.

Lee, S. Y., Yang H. J., Kim G., Cheong H. K., and Choi B. Y., "Preventive behaviours by the level of perceived infection sensitivity during the Korea outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 2015," (in eng), Epidemiol Health, vol. 38, p. e2016051, 2016, doi: 10.4178/epih.e2016051.

Jang, W. M. et al., "Preventive Behavioural Responses to the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Outbreak in Korea," (in eng), Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 16, no. 12, Jun 18 2019, doi: 10.3390/ijerph16122161.

de Zwart, O., Veldhuijzen I. K., Richardus J. H., and Brug J., "Monitoring of risk perceptions and correlates of precautionary behaviour related to human avian influenza during 2006 - 2007 in the Netherlands: results of seven consecutive surveys," BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 114, 2010/05/12 2010, doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-114.

Janz, N. K. and Becker M. H., "The Health Belief Model: a decade later," (in eng), Health Educ Q, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-47, Spring 1984, doi: 10.1177/109019818401100101.

Liu, J. T., Hammitt J. K., Wang J. D., and Tsou M. W., "Valuation of the risk of SARS in Taiwan," (in eng), Health Econ, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 83-91, Jan 2005, doi: 10.1002/hec.911.

Chan, E. Y. Y., Huang Z., Lo E. S. K., Hung K. K. C., Wong E. L. Y., and Wong S. Y. S., "Sociodemographic Predictors of Health Risk Perception, Attitude and Behaviour Practices Associated with Health-Emergency Disaster Risk Management for Biological Hazards: The Case of COVID-19 Pandemic in Hong Kong, SAR China," (in eng), Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 17, no. 11, May 29 2020, doi: 10.3390/ijerph17113869.

Leung, G. M. et al., "A tale of two cities: community psychobehavioural surveillance and related impact on outbreak control in Hong Kong and Singapore during the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic," (in eng), Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1033-41, Dec 2004, doi: 10.1086/502340.

Choi, J.-S. and Yang N.-Y., "Perceived Knowledge, Attitude, and Compliance with Preventive Behaviour on Influenza A (H1N1) by University Students," Korean Journal of Adult Nursing, vol. 22, 01/01 2010.




DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v10i1.20589
Total views : 109 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
p-ISSN: 2252-8806, e-ISSN: 2620-4126

View IJPHS Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.